A useful aspect of new community land law is that ‘community’ is liberally defined. This has origins in the National Land Policy of 2009, which directed Government to: “Document and map existing forms of communal tenure, whether customary or contemporary, rural or urban, in consultation with the affected groups, and incorporate them into broad principles that will facilitate the orderly evolution of community land law“(National land policy Para. 66a).
Since the development of the Policy Framework for Nomadic Education in Kenya (2009), several legal and policy documents have been developed to guide the direction of the country and the education sector. Key among these include the Constitution of Kenya 2010, the Sessional Paper No.14, 2012, the Basic Education Act 2013 and the National Education Sector Plan (NESP) 2014-2018.In order to fast track and put the agenda of nomadic education in Kenya’s socioeconomic and political focus, the Government has established a National Council for Nomadic Education in Kenya (NACONEK), with a Secretariat. Kenya has committed itself to the Millennium Development Goals, Education for All, and other education targets, but although its achievement in this respect is perhaps the best in Africa, it is unlikely to achieve these goals on present performance. The difficulty now is getting education to hard-to-reach children, especially nomadic pastoralists.
The Government of Kenya has established a National Commission for Nomadic Education in Kenya (NACONEK). Its critical mandate will be to serve as the driving force for nomadic education. Research and experimental work on nomadic education will however continue while NACONEK continue implementing nomadic education universally to reach out to all ASALs counties.
Kenya has made excellent commitments to nomadic education. The existing national policy framework is an optimistic and forward-looking agenda which sets out the main features and challenges of nomadic education. It calls for a new approach, able to go beyond forcing pastoralists ‘to choose between herding and schooling’. The task is now to make this policy framework operational by filling critical research gaps and through experimental and pilot projects, and thus finally realize Kenya’s education commitments to nomadic children and adults.
The strategy with NACONEK mainly with nomadic children, but other hard-to-reach children, as well as adult pastoralists, are also targeted. The strategy stresses family involvement in education, by encouraging parents to enroll with their children, and by providing learning materials for adults.
The reviewed policy aims at addressing three distinct challenges that are in the pastoral nomadic counties and marginalized groups urban informal settlements: how to close the gap between these regions and the rest of the country in terms of access, quality, relevance and gender disparities in education, how to protect the environment and institutional arrangements in these regions, which are so essential to economic productive systems and way of life in ASAL areas across the country and promote sustainable development, and how to coordinate education programmes in these regions and mobilize additional to support investment in education in these regions.
An educational strategy for nomads will combine different delivery methods (boarding and mobile schools, radio broadcasts) together with new approaches to the way education relates to pastoral livelihood concerns. The Government to explore various experiments with a variety of delivery mechanisms while recognizing the contradiction between pastoral livelihoods and conventional schooling
In the immediate future, priority should be given to developing and piloting a distance learning (DL) system for arid and pastoral areas based principally on use of radio, together with mobile teachers and printed materials. Community radios may be a suitable model for a radio-based distance learning system. The distance learning system and accompanying materials should be available to adults and children, and integrated where useful with existing boarding and mobile schools.
A plan should be elaborated through NACONEK to recruit, train and reward teachers for involvement in radio-based education in the unique conditions of the arid and pastoral areas. Effective procedures should be developed for enrolling and keeping track of nomadic DL students. The nomadic education strategy should use the national curriculum to ensure equivalence with the rest of Kenya. Adaptation of material to the specific conditions of pastoral livelihood systems should take place at the stage of design and production of radio learning modules, supported by a teachers’ handbook developed for each district.
An evaluation/examination system should be developed which enables children to move back and forward between the DL programme and the conventional formal education system, and to acquire the same qualification at the end of their course (Kenya Certificate of Primary Education).
The government should closely monitor the implementation of the strategy and evaluate it in as much detail as possible upon implementation. An M&E system must be developed which generates adequate data (on capital and recurrent costs, and wider costs and impacts) for a full evaluation of the distance learning process and how it compares to other ways of achieving the same objective. A nomadic education strategy must be based on a positive attitude towards nomadic pastoral livelihoods. The strategy must incorporate as far as possible the views and opinions of the clients, that is to say the adults and children who are the students and for whom the educational system is designed.
The proposed distance learning strategy for nomads should be fully costed in order to understand the implications of such a strategy and how it compares to other ways of achieving the same objective of education for all.
All four pastoralist groups; Turkanas, Gabras, Borana and Somalis have a common critique of the education system, highlighting the way in which it separates children from their culture and way of life. This concern is about more than the physical separation of children from their families and the loss of their labour to the household economy. It is also about how the values and knowledge children acquire through the school system may affect their attitude towards their home environment. Educating a child within the present system is clearly done at significant cost to the family, which is far more than financial:
I moved to Garissa in early 2008. My family and I decided to settle here because we were targeted during the post-election violence.
We left because we feared being victims of the attacks.
In the 2007/2008 political chaos, Garissa did not experience any form of violence compared to other counties.
The county was very peaceful hence attracted many citizens living in affected areas.
My life in Garissa has been very smooth partly because of the people here.
They are very welcoming and peaceful.
I have never experienced any form of discrimination incident from residents here.
With such attacks going on, I feel scared because non-Muslims are often targeted.
But what people are forgetting is that the terrorists are aiming to divide us.
When I get angry and leave, they will be winning.
Nelson Otieno, 32, Construction worker
If there is anyone’s heart that beats for the good of Garissa County, that person is me.
I was born and bred here 32 years ago by a father who wholeheartedly worked for the wellbeing of this county.
He was a staff member of the then Provincial Commissioner’s office in Garissa.
People here are good, friendly and warm.
I played with them, went to school with them, was treated with them in hospitals and now I work for them.
Over the years, I’ve seen this town grow both economically and politically.
But the recent events of killings by terror gangs has left me with nothing but prayer.
Prayer that all this would stop and I’ll be living a peaceful life.
Nothing will prosper if the area is in turmoil.
I have a family here and nowadays, I prefer praying with them at home and not go to church for fear of being attacked.
Jeremiah Okello, 30, High school teacher
IN January 2011, I received a call from my friend who was working here in Garissa.
He was a teacher. He told me there was a job opportunity.
I was teaching in a private school in Nairobi at that time. I considered the offer, packed and travelled to Garissa.
The town was very safe at that time. No one in my family questioned my decision since they all knew how stable this county was.
Eight months later is when attacks started. KDF went to Somalia in October of the same year.
The Garissa of today and that of 2011 when I came is very different. In a way, I feel targeted. Going away is not an option; that is my stand.
The government with people’s collaboration is the only way we can win this war.
Pressure is there especially from my family back in Kisumu. They want me back but I have decided to stay.
Mary Ndunda, 29, Nurse
I am a nurse at Iftin Medical Clinic.
I graduated from Mombasa Polytechnic in November of 2011.
The thought of coming to work in Garissa had never crossed my mind.
One of my classmates was working here. She called me and told me there was a clinic looking for nurses.
Since I did not have a job, I decided to come and work here. People here are peaceful but impatient. That is their main challenge.
When such attacks happen I feel bad and sometimes get traumatised because of the images and its magnitude. I hope that the authorities will stop these attacks.
The issue of leaving Garissa should be a No-No for the non-locals like us. Apart from Garissa, other places in the country have also been attacked.
Their mission is to make sure we turn against each other. Let us not fall to their plan.
Courtersy of Daily Nation
The victims are camping at Amuma Primary School after their homes were either swept away or brought down by the torrential rains that pounded the area for three consecutive days. Speaking in Garissa town, Jarajila Ward Representative Mahat Osman said the affected families are now taking refuge at the primary school, which was not affected by the floods since it is located at a higher ground. “Nobody was killed in the raging rain waters which almost submerged the entire village but more than 1,000 families were rendered homeless for the last three days”, he said. The MCA said the entire village, which is about 8km from Somalia border, were completely flattened and turned into a pool of water.
He said a humanitarian crisis is looming with children, women and elderly people showing signs of bad health and fatigue from sleeping in the open at the school’s open grounds since the classrooms couldn’t accommodate the big numbers. “The displaced lack basic necessities such as bedding, shelter, foodstuffs and medicine. Children particularly under five were affected by the cold and they are coughing a lot,” he said.
At least 54 people have been killed in clashes between communities on the Turkana- East Pokot border according to Kenya Red Cross. The clashes at Nadome village have also left about 350 families displaced and are currently camping at Nabokut and Nasoret areas. “After a long trek to the scene, our team on the ground has reported 54 people dead. Five critical cases (have been) evacuated to hospital,” said the organisation on its Twitter handle on Wednesday adding that at least 400 goats were stolen in the raid.
The organisation added its rescue team was also preparing to depart Loyangalani with a young patient who needs specialised treatment in Nairobi. The Kenya Red Cross update on the clashes between Turkana and Pokot pastoralists contradicts information given earlier by Mr Peter Pamba, the officer leading Administration Police in the operation who said the police had found no bodies and therefore no killings had occurred.
“We were at the scene but did not see anything,” he had told Nation.co.ke on Tuesday evening after reports claimed that 46 people had been killed in a bandit raid. “We will continue with the operation tomorrow (Wednesday),” said Mr Pamba. Rift Valley Regional Commissioner Osman Warfa had said 46 people were killed in the attack.
Courtersy of Daily Nation
The county assembly has been asked to set up a fund for development projects in marginalized areas . MP for Sigowet/Soin mentioned that; this will bring the semi-arid constituency at par with other regions ,which had been marginalized by previous governments. The Questioned is, what about the current insecurity menace? leaders in this counties must speak in one voice to end banditry
Mochongoi residents receive food donations from the baringo senator Hon. Gideon Moi ,area leaders led by Moses Lemeluk receive 100 bags of maize in kabarak on 3/3/2014.
The donation was meant to help boost the families that are hosting displaced person from Arabal, Mukutani and Chebinyiny locations. The senator had promised the community during his visit at Kabel on Sunday .Mochongoi residents are currently hosting families affected by the ongoing banditry in Arabal and Mukutani locations.
Baringo leaders need to be more proactive for the realization of peace in the entire county ,area chiefs were put on notice by the county commissioner peter okwanyo as the government moved to stamp out the insecurity which has left more than 20 people dead and 5,000 displaced in the past one month. Land and Natural resources available in this areas is the root causes of this menace ,the government should come up with affirmative action to restore peace ,resettle the displaced persons or give them alternative land to enable them continue with their livelihoods.
Some 1.6 million Kenyans are acutely food-insecure and will need immediate assistance over the next six months, the Government has said. Devolution Cabinet Secretary Anne Waiguru said the hardest hit are areas that experienced extremely poor rainfall particularly in the pastoral zones of the north and north eastern counties – Mandera, Garissa, Isiolo, Wajir and parts of Tana River County.. This is according to the assessment report on the country’s current drought and food security situation in the arid and semi-arid land (ASALs) counties in the country. The report was released yesterday by Ms Waiguru.
The Devolution CS pointed out that the most critical period for the affected areas are between February and end of March 2015. “There are varying degrees of drought stress in the ASALs counties but emergency conditions have not yet been reached largely due to the interventions from the national government and other stake holders. Further deterioration of the situation can be contained by timely and effective response particularly in the water, health and nutrition, livestock and security sectors,” she said.
Waiguru said at the ASALs inter-governmental consultative meeting that it was noted the short rains of November and December 2014 had been poor, given the rains started late and ended early in most of the arid and semi-arid counties. The CS pointed out that despite the situation, the Government will continue to undertake different interventions. “With regard to relief food provisions, the Ministry of Devolution will continue to provide monthly relief food rations to the counties that are food-insecure. In addition, there will be a scaling-up of the authority to incur expenditure for distribution to ensure that county commissioners are able to distribute the food to all affected areas,” she explained. CASH TRANSFERS. She added that the Ministry of Agriculture will ensure all the National Cereals and Produce Board stores in ASALs areas are stocked with maize. Waiguru pointed out that the national government had disbursed Sh279 million to 16 counties since August last year to implement their contingency plans with further disbursement being availed on request by the affected counties.
There is need for early warning systems to be put in place at the county government level, the affected communities to trained more on climate change effects , resilience and how they can mitigate to prevent losses
An act of parliament to prohibit the practice of female genital mutilation,to safeguard against violation of person’s mental or physical integrity through the practice of female genital mutilation and for connected purposes.
“Female genital mutilation “comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs,or any harmful procedure to the female genitalia ,for non-medical reasons.
The vicious conflicts between Pokot and Turkana communities have been attributed to the long standing boundary and resource tussle in the area. The land in question, which emanates from Marich Pass area, 194 kilometres to Lodwar and Kainuk, is joined with the Turkwel River, which is rich with fertile soils that has seen CSOs attempt to encourage both parties to practice subsistence farming. Areas around Turkwel, including Amolem, Takaywa, Sarmach, Nyangaita, Alale, Lokiriama and Ombolion are among the worst hit, with close to 30 deaths reported in the past four months. Turkana leaders on the other hand are battling it for land situated in Kapedo, where 21 police officers and three civilians were recently killed by bandits and their firearms stolen.
The two communities have been fighting over resources along the border region, which has resulted to death and displacement. Leaders from Baringo East have constantly claimed that Kapedo and Lomelo regions belong to them, but has been annexed unfairly by the Turkana community. “Kapedo is in Turkana East County and is administered by Turkana County government. It is a wonder that Baringo leaders allege that it is theirs, without valid proof and only rely on the 1963 boundary map,” as mentioned by Turkana East Member of Parliament Nicholas Ngikor. The rift between the two communities has constantly widened, with the county chiefs and national leaders pointing an accusing finger at each other without reaching a formidable solution. Attempts by the leaders, who recently organized a peace meeting initiative, aimed to restore normalcy and avert the conflict were futile as both leaders snubbed the function. Turkana County Governor Josphat Nanok, has urged the Government to form a commission to review the land demarcations soon to avert more damage. “The Government as a matter of urgency should address this boundary issue. Further delay will mean more impunity and deaths,” said Nanok. Samuel Tororei, a commissioner at the National Land Commission, said the aggrieved counties should resolve their differences in accordance with the Constitution.
Implementing chapter Four of the constitution and having an up to date data on of the boundary will bring peace in pastoral counties.